Rapid testing for pepsin

The Peptest kit is an immunological in-vitro diagnostic medical device that contains two pepsin monoclonal antibodies; it allows you to identify pepsin in a clinical sample of saliva/ sputum quickly and easily.

No specific training is required to use Peptest but it is designed for use by healthcare professionals.

You can order Peptest kits for use at your facility and we also invite researchers to our laboratory for pepsin diagnostics.

Peptest conforms to the European Directive 98/79/EC on in-vitro Diagnostic Medical Devices, which is shown by the CE mark of conformity.

People using Peptest

GABRIEL HENDOW
GP at Bransholme Health Centre and an ENT specialist
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PROF. KARNA DEV BARDHAN
Consultant Gastroenterologist at Rotherham General Hospital
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MR MARK WATSON
Consultant ENT Surgeon
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PROF. ALYN H. MORICE
Head of Cardio & Respiratory Studies at University of Hull
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Peptest is fantastic to use because its simplicity means I do not have to refer my patient to secondary care.

Dr Gabriel Hendow

I would definitely recommend using Peptest and I think it will become widely used.

Prof. Karna Dev Bardhan

I give talks and lectures on laryngopharyngeal reflux and I try to make people aware of Peptest

Mr Mark Watson

Because it is such a rapid test we are able to receive the results while I am seeing the patient in the clinic

Prof. Alyn Morice

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RESEARCH PAPERS

Basic Science

2017: Pepsin and pH Levels of Human Gastric Juices in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Subgroups and Functional Heartburn.

Authors:P. Ergun, S. Kipcak, P. Dettmar, A. Woodcock, S. Bor

Overview: The aim of this paper is to draw the key evidence together and to raise awareness of EER amongst gastroenterologists, who today are increasingly invited by ENT and respiratory specialists to help investigate patients in whom this condition is suspected.

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2017: The characteristics of salivary pepsin in patients with severemotor and intellectual disabilities

Authors:Naoki Hashizumea, Suguru Fukahoria, Kimio Asagiria, Shinji Ishiia,Nobuyuki Saikusaa, Naruki Higashidatea, Motomu Yoshidaa, Daisuke Masuia, Saki Sakamotoa, Yoshiaki Tanakaa, Minoru Yagia, Yushiro Yamashita

Overview: The aim of the present study was to determine the utility of measuring the salivary pepsin level (SPL) as an objectiveassessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) patients.

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2014: Chronic pepsin exposure promotes anchorage-independent growth, and migration of a hypopharyngeal squamous cell line

Author(s): Elizabeth A. Kelly, Tina L. Samuels and Nikki Johnston

Overview: Hypopharyngeal squamous cell line chronically exposed to pepsin demonstrated
increased cell migration, and colony forming ability relative to control cells. These experiments
indicate that chronic pepsin exposure acts as a promoter of tumorigenesis and metastasis of airway
epithelium, suggesting a role for pepsin in laryngopharyngeal carcinogenesis attributed to gastric
reflux.

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2012: Reflux Revisited - Advancing the Role of Pepsin

Authors: Bardhan, Strugala, and Dettmar

Overview: The aim of this paper is to draw the key evidence together and to raise awareness of EER amongst gastroenterologists, who today are increasingly invited by ENT and respiratory specialists to help investigate patients in whom this condition is suspected.

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2011: Nature and properties of gastro-oesophageal and extra-oesophageal refluxate

Author(s): J. P. Pearson & S. Parikh

Overview: Gastric juice contains many damaging agents against which the stomach has effective defences including a mucus bilayer which generates an unstirred layer which supports surface neutralisation of acid and forms a diffusion barrier to pepsin.

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2011: Uptake of pepsin at pH 7 -in non-acid reflux- causes inflammatory, and perhaps even neoplastic, changes in the laryngopharynx.

Author(s): N. Johnston

Overview: Pepsin has been previously assumed to cause damage by its proteolytic activity alone, but our discovery that pepsin is taken up by laryngeal epithelial cells by receptormediated endocytosis opens the door to a new mechanism for cell damage, and downstream, the development of new therapies for reflux disease – receptor antagonists and ⁄ or pepsin inhibitors.

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Ears, Nose and Throat (ENT)

2017: Clinical-Diagnostic Correlations in Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR). The Role of Peptest

Author(s): Gelardi M, Eplite A, Mezzina A, Taliente S, Plantone F, Dettmar PW, Quaranta N

Overview: The aim of the present study was to correlate the qualitativequantitative
values of salivary pepsin (using PeptestTM) with symptoms and signs obtained from RSI and RFS. The final goal is to validate this enzyme immunoassay method using LPR diagnostic tools.

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2017: Role of Pepsin and Oropharyngeal pH-Monitoring to Assess the Postoperative Outcome of Patients with Laryngopharyngeal Reflux: Results of a Pilot Trial

Author(s): Michael Weitzendorfer, Richard Pfandner, Stavros A. Antoniou, Werner Langsteger, Kai Witzel, Klaus Emmanuel,and Oliver O. Koch

Overview: The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of salivary pepsin and oropharyngeal pHmonitoring to assess the surgical outcome of patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR).

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2017: Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Disease – LPRD

Author(s): Nizama Salihefendic, Muharem Zildzic, Emir Cabric

Overview: This paper is written with the intention to assess the frequency of symptoms of LPR in family medicine, possible diagnostics and adequate treatment in primary health care.

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2017: Salivary Pepsin Test: Useful and Simple Tool for the Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Diagnosis

Author(s): Luz Barona-Lleó, Claudia Duval, Rafael Barona-de Guzmána

Overview: The aim of the study is to describe the findings obtained by applying the salivary pepsin test in a sample of patients with the clinical suspicion of Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR)

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2017: Is Pepsin a Reliable Marker of Laryngopharyngeal Reflux? A Systematic Review

Author(s): Christian Calvo-Henriquez, Alberto Ruano-Ravina, Pedro Vaamonde, Gabriel Martinez-Capoccioni, and Carlos Martin-Martın

Overview: The objective of the present research is to analyze the existing literature
using pepsin as a diagnostic tool of LPR through a systematic review of Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR)

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2016: Laryngopharyngeal reflux: diagnosis, treatment and latest research

Author(s): G. L. Falk and S. J. Vivian

Overview: A review of the recent changes in understanding of laryngopharyngeal and extra-oesophageal reflux symptoms.

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2016: The Role of Pepsin in LPR: Will It Change Our Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approach to the Disease?

Author(s): Kendra E. Luebke, Tina L. Samuels & Nikki Johnston

Overview: Research is needed to elucidate the exact role that pepsin plays in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases of the laryngopharynx and to develop pharmacologic agents targeting pepsin.

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2015: Diagnosis of extraesophageal reflux in children with chronic otitis media with effusion using Peptest

Author(s): Martin Formanek, Karol Zelenık, Pavel Komınek, Petr Matousek

Overview: The aim of the study was to investigate whether Peptest, an immunoassay used to detect pepsin, could be used to diagnose extraesophageal reflux (EER) in children with chronic otitis media with effusion (OME). The results obtained using this fast, simple and non-expensive method were compared with the results of previous studies.

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2015: Salivary Pepsin Concentrations are Higher for Patients with Reflux Associated Laryngeal Symptoms: A Prospective Pilot Study

Author(s): Christopher Adkins, Rena Yadlapati, Diana Jaiyeola, Andrew J. Gawron, Michael I. Ellenbogen, Bruce K. Tan, Stephanie Shintani-Smith, Michiel Bove, Caroline Price, Alcina K. Lidder, John E. Pandolfino

Overview: The aim of this study was to assess for differences in salivary pepsin for patients with LPR and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms compared to controls.

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2015: Salivary pepsin assay as a diagnostic test for laryngopharyngeal reflux

Author(s): Stapleton et al

Overview: This study demonstrates that salivary pepsin assay has an excellent specificity and positive predictive value in diagnosing laryngopharyngeal reflux.

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2015: Detecting laryngopharyngeal reflux in patients with upper airways symptoms: Symptoms, signs or salivary pepsin?

Author(s): Alexander Spyridoulias, Siobhan Lillie, Aashish Vyas, Stephen J. Fowler

Overview: We compared symptoms, laryngeal signs and salivary pepsin as potential diagnostic methods for identifying LPR in patients with upper airway symptoms.

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2015: Immunoserologic Pepsin Detection in The Saliva as a Non-Invasive Rapid Diagnostic Test for Laryngopharyngeal Reflux

Author(s): Emre Ocak, Gözde Kubat, İrfan Yorulmaz

Overview: To evaluate the accuracy of immunoserologic pepsin detection in the saliva for the diagnosis of LPR.

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2014: Objective detection of esophagopharyngeal reflux in patients with hoarseness and endoscopic signs of laryngeal inflammation

Author(s): Hayat JO, Yazaki E, Moore AT, Hicklin L, Dettmar P3, Kang JY, Sifrim D.

Overview: This paper aimed to quantify pharyngeal exposure to gastric contents in patients diagnosed with reflux-related hoarseness and healthy controls using new diagnostic techniques.

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2013: Pepsin detection despite the use of acid suppressant medication in patients with airway reflux related chronic cough

Author(s): Gemma L Crossfield, Warren Jackson, Jennifer Burke, Andrew D Woodcock, Vicki Strugala, Chris Ward, Jeffrey P Pearson, Peter W Dettmar, Alyn H Morice

Overview: The following study assessed pepsin identification in chronic cough patients as a marker of airway reflux on proton pump inhibitor (PPI) medication.

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2013: Laryngopharyngeal reflux and GERD

Author(s): Nikki Johnston, Peter W. Dettmar, Vicki Strugala, Jacqui E. Allen, and Walter W. Chan

Overview: This paper on on laryngopharyngeal reflux includes commentaries on the use of
patient-completed questionaires and anti-human pepsin antibodies and other non-invasive tests in diagnosis; the role of pepsin and acid in the etiologies of laryngeal cancers; and the application of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy for the treatment of LPR.

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2012: Do Patients With Hoarseness and Endoscopic Signs of LPR Have Abnormal Esophago-Pharyngeal Reflux?

Author(s): Jamal O. Hayat, Jin-Yong Kang, Peter W. Dettmar, Andrew T. Moore, Lucy C. Hicklin, Etsuro Yazaki, Daniel Sifrim

Overview: It is proposed that hoarseness can be induced by abnormal exposure of the vocal cords to gastric contents. In these patients, laryngoscopy may show non-specific inflammatory signs, generally attributed to LPR. New methods are proposed to assess pharyngeal exposure to gastric contents.

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2012: Novel Techniques For Assessing Oesophago-Pharyngeal Reflux in Patients

Author(s): J. O. Hayat, E. Yazaki, A. T. Moore, L. A. C. Hicklin, P. W. Dettmar, J.-Y. Kang, D. Sifrim

Overview: It is suggested that hoarseness along with typical signs on laryngoscopy can be caused by oesophagopharyngeal reflux, often referred to as LPR. New methods are proposed to assess pharyngeal exposure to gastric contents. They are suggested to measure 1) liquid or mixed gas-liquid acid and non-acid reflux (HMII-pH), 2) aerosolized acid reflux (Dx-pH measuring system, Restech), and 3) presence of pepsin in saliva. We aimed to quantify pharyngeal exposure to gastric contents in patients with hoarseness and healthy controls using the above techniques.

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2012: New Developments in Extraesophageal Reflux Disease

Author(s): Elif Saritas Yuksel and Michael F. Vaezi Overview: This paper discusses recent developments in extraesophageal reflux disease with special emphasis on new diagnostic modalities and treatment options. Open and Download research paper

2012: Laryngopharyngeal pepsin reflux in patients with upper airway symptoms

Author(s): A Spyridoulias, S Lillie, A Vyas, SJ Fowler

Overview: We investigated: (a) the prevalence of pepsin reflux in respiratory patients requiring nasendoscopy for the investigation of upper airway symptoms; (b) the performance of commonly used clinical LPR-diagnostic tools in predicting the presence of salivary pepsin.

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2011: Pepsin detection in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux before and after fundoplication

Author(s): Eelco Wassenaar, Nikki Johnston, Albert Merati, Martin Montenovo, Rebecca Petersen, Roger Tatum, Carlos Pellegrini, Brant Oelschlager

Overview: Some patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) suffer from laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). There is no reliable diagnostic test for LPR as there is for GERD. We hypothesized that detection of pepsin (a molecule only made in the stomach) in laryngeal epithelium or sputum should provide evidence for reflux of gastric contents to the larynx, and be diagnostic of LPR.

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2011: Laryngopharyngeal reflux-the ear, nose and throat patient

Author(s): M Watson

Overview: We investigated: (a) the prevalence of pepsin reflux in respiratory patients requiring nasendoscopy for the investigation of upper airway symptoms; (b) the performance of commonly used clinical LPR-diagnostic tools in predicting the presence of salivary pepsin.

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2011: The prevalence of laryngopharyngeal reflux in the English population

Author(s): Tawakir Kamani, Susannah Penney, Indu Mitra, Vijay Pothula

Overview: Although symptoms of laryngopharyngealreflux (LPR) symptoms are commonly seen in the ENTclinic, their aetiology and prevalence in the population remain unknown.

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2011: Review article: reflux and its consequences

Author(s): P.W. Dettmar, D.O. Castell and R.C. Heading

Overview: The ‘Reflux and its consequences’ conference was held in Hull in 2010 and brought together a multidisciplinary group of experts all with a common interest in the many manifestations of reflux disease to present recent research and clinical progress in GERD and EERD.

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2008: Use of a Non-Invasive Pepsin Diagnostic Test for Reflux: a series of case studies

Author(s): Strugala, McGlashan, Morice, Dettmar

Overview:  A non-invasive diagnostic test in the form of a lateral flow test (LFT) specific for pepsin has been shown to be of benefit in the diagnosis of extraoesophageal reflux (EOR). This test is able to detect pepsin, as a marker of prior reflux, in the sputum of a patient, particular if experiencing symptoms.

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2007: Evaluation of a non-invasive pepsin dipstick test for the diagnosis of extra-oesophageal reflux

Author(s): Strugala, McGlashan, Watson, Morice, Calderone, Dettmar

Overview: Here we present data from a multi-centre pilot study the primary outcome of which was to establish whether a non-invasive in vitro test was capable of diagnosing patients with EOR by detection of the presence of gastric enzyme pepsin in sputum/saliva.

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2007: Detection of pepsin using a non-invasive lateral flow test for the diagnosis of extra-oesophageal reflux

Author(s): Strugala, McGlashan, Watson, Morice, Granier, Dettmar

Overview: Diagnosis of extra-oesophageal reflux (EOR) remains difficult. 24hr pHmetry or impedance monitoring are invasive and insufficiently sensitive enough for use in EOR and the laryngoscopic signs of EOR can be non-specific. An objective, noninvasive test for the presence of EOR is warranted.

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Gastroenterology

2017: Salivary pepsin detection as a gastroesophageal reflux disease marker in pediatric population

Author(s):Andres Bodas et al

Overview: The aim of this paper is to establish test sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and its validation in the pediatric population.

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2017: The diagnostic value of pepsin detection in saliva for gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a preliminary study from China

Author(s):Xing Du, Feng Wang, Zhiwei Hu, Jimin Wu, Zhonggao Wang, Chao Yan, Chao Zhang and Juan Tang

Overview: None of current diagnostic methods has been proven to be a reliable tool for gastro-esophageal reflu disease (GERD). Pepsin in saliva has been proposed as a promising diagnostic biomarker for gastro-esophageal reflux. We aimed to determine the diagnostic value of salivary pepsin detection for GERD.

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2016: Esophageal testing: What we have so far

Author(s):Nicola de Bortoli, Irene Martinucci, Lorenzo Bertani, Salvatore Russo, Riccardo Franchi, Manuele Furnari, Salvatore Tolone, Giorgia Bodini, Valeria Bolognesi, Massimo Bellini, Vincenzo Savarino, Santino Marchi, Edoardo Vincenzo Savarino

Overview: In the coming years, laryngopharyngeal symptoms could be evaluated with up and coming non-invasive or minimally invasive techniques, such as pepsin detection in saliva or pharyngeal pH-metry.

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2015: OPTIMISATION OF THE PEPTEST DIAGNOSTIC TEST FOR DETECTION OF GORD USING PEPSIN AS A MARKER: AN IDEAL PRIMARY CARE TOOL

Author(s):V. Strugala, P.W. Dettmar, K.D. Bardhan

Overview: A study into the ability of Peptest to detect patients with GORD was performed. The optimal sampling strategy to give the highest diagnostic yield was investigated.

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2015: Local Synthesis of Pepsin in Barrett's Esophagus and the Role of Pepsin in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

Author(s):Tina Samuels, Craig Hoekzema, Jon Gould, Matthew Goldblatt, Matthew Frelich, Matthew Bosler, Sang-Hyuk Lee and Nikki Johnston

Overview: Given the carcinogenic potential of pepsin and inefficacy of PPIs to prevent EAC, the presence and effect of pepsin in the esophagus should be investigated.

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2015: Pepsin in saliva for the diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

Author(s):Tina Samuels, Craig Hoekzema, Jon Gould, Matthew Goldblatt, Matthew Frelich, Matthew Bosler, Sang-Hyuk Lee and Nikki Johnston

Overview: The aims of this study were to establish normal values of salivary pepsin in healthy asymptomatic subjects and to determine its value to discriminate patients with refluxrelated
symptoms (GORD, hypersensitive oesophagus (HO)) from functional heartburn (FH).

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2015: DOES SALIVARY PEPSIN MEASUREMENT CHANGE DIAGNOSTIC OUTCOME IN PATIENTS INVESTIGATED BY 24H PH MONITORING?

Author(s):A. M. P. Rasijeff, W. Jackson, J.M. Burke, P.W. Dettmar

Overview: In contrast to routine diagnostic methods, quantification of salivary pepsin is rapid and noninvasive. Furthermore, 24h pH-monitoring has limited sensitivity. We aimed to evaluate the impact of salivary pepsin measurement on diagnosis of GORD in patients undergoing 24h pH-monitoring.

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2012: Rapid Salivary Pepsin Test: Blinded Assessment of Test Performance in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Author(s): Elif Saritas Yuksel, MD; Shih-Kuang S. Hong, MD, MSCI; Vicki Strugala, PhD; James C. Slaughter, DrPH; Marion Goutte, BS; C. Gaelyn Garrett, MD; Peter W. Dettmar, PhD; Michael F. Vaezi, MD, PhD

Overview: Pepsin lateral flow device (LFD) is a rapid noninvasive test to detect salivary pepsin as a surrogate marker for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We aimed to establish the test sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) in patients with symptomatic and objective evidence of GERD compared to healthy controls.

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2012: Validation of peptest a new non-invasive technology for the diagnosis of LPR

Author(s): Bor, Capanoglu, Yildirim, Vardar, Woodcock, Dettmar

Overview: The study was designed to validate the reliability of a non-invasive lateral flow device (LFD) PeptestTM for pepsin determination following reflux symptoms during intraesophageal impedance measurement (MII-pH)

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2010: Reflux and its Consequences - the Laryngeal, Pulmonary and Oesophageal Manifestations

Author(s): P. W. Dettmar, D. O. Castell and R. C. Heading

Overview: The ‘Reflux and its consequences’ conference was held in Hull in 2010 and brought together a multidisciplinary group of experts all with a common interest in the many manifestations of reflux disease to present recent research and clinical progress in GERD and EERD. In particular new techniques for diagnosing reflux were showcased at the conference.

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2013: Pepsin in saliva and gastroesophageal reflux monitoring in healthy subjects and patients with heartburn/regurgitation

Author(s): Hayat, Gabieta-Gomez, Yazaki, Kang, Woodcock, Dettmar, Mabary, Sifrim

Overview: The aim of this study was to measure pepsin in saliva with objective assessment of GOR by impedance-pH (MII-pH) in a cohort of asymptomatic subjects and consecutive patients with clinically significant heartburn (according to the Montreal definition of GORD).

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2012: Use of a non-invasive pepsin diagnostic test to detect GERD

Author(s): Bortoli, Savarino et al

Overview: The aim was to evaluate the accuracy of PEP-Test in diagnosing GERD using MII-pH monitoring as reference standard

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Respiratory

2016: Bronchial reacutization and gastroesophageal reflux: is there a potential clinical correlation?

Author(s): Carlo Pomari, Luisa Mauroner, Simona Paiano, Luca Rosario Assante, Luca Bertolaccini, Giacomo Ruffo, Paride Mainardi, Paolo Bocus, Andrea Geccherle, Sergio Ivan Albanese, Stefano Ciaffoni

Overview:  Pepsin plays a role in gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Aims of this study were to verify if pepsin could be the cause of frequent bronchial exacerbations and to check if the persistence of chronic respiratory symptoms were correlated with pre-existing respiratory diseases.

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2015: Use of pepsin detection to identify airways reflux in a range of pulmonary diseases

Author(s): V. Strugala

Overview:  In this pilot investigation, Peptest was used in patients presenting to the department of Pneumology and Physiology at a teaching hospital in the Czech Republic.

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2015: Detection of pepsin in sputum: a rapid and objective measure of airways reflux

Author(s): V. Strugala

Overview:  We hypothesised that Peptest could provide simple objective confirmation of airways reflux in unselected patients with chronic cough.

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2015: Diagnosis of extraesophageal reflux in children with chronic otitis media with effusion using Peptest

Author(s): Martin Formanek, Karol Zelenik, Pavel Kominek, Petr Matousek

Overview:  The aim of the study was to investigate whether Peptest, an immunoassay used to detect pepsin, could be used to diagnose extraesophageal reflux (EER) in children with chronic otitis media wit effusion (OME).

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2013: Pepsin as a biomarker of airway reflux in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis - An observational study

Author(s): Dudziak, Crooks, Woodcock, Dettmar, Morice, Hart

Overview: Current understanding of IPF proposes repetitive pulmonary epithelial injury with aberrant healing as a principal mechanism. Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) and micro-aspiration of gastric contents may cause lung injury with subsequent fibrosis. GOR is known to be prevalent in IPF patients. We assessed the feasibility of salivary pepsin measurement in IPF patients and investigated the temporal variability and relationship between salivary pepsin and symptoms.

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2013: Pepsin detection in expectorated saliva: a useful marker for airway reflux?

Author(s): Shoaib Faruqi, Andrew D. Woodcock, Peter W. Dettmar, Alyn H. Morice

Overview:  The presence of pepsin in the oesophagus, or more proximally in the pharynx or the airways, suggest GOR. The aim of this study was to study the diagnostic utility of measuring pepsin in expectorated saliva in unselected patients presenting with chronic cough.

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2014: Detection of pepsin as a marker of reflux in the coughed-up saliva samples of COPD patients.

Author(s): Strugala V, Hill L, Miles J, Bardhan KD, Dettmar PW

Overview: The aim of this cohort study was to objectively identify reflux in general COPD patient population by rapid detection of pepsin in expectorated saliva.

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2012: Pepsin detection despite the use of acid suppressant medication in patients with airway reflux related chronic cough

Author(s): Gemma L Crossfield, Warren Jackson, Jennifer Burke, Andrew D Woodcock, Vicki Strugala, Chris Ward, Jeffrey P Pearson, Peter W Dettmar, Alyn H Morice

Overview: Airway reflux is a common cause of unexplained chronic cough and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) medication is commonly prescribed as initial therapy. The following study assessed pepsin identification in Chronic Cough patients as a marker of airway reflux on PPI.

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2011: Reflux and asthma-mechanisms of interaction and asthma outcomes

Author(s): S. M. Harding

Overview: Oesophageal contents can alter lung function and impact airway inflammation. Reflux treatment improves asthma outcomes in selected asthmatics.

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2011: Reflux in cough and airway disease

Author(s): A H Morice

Overview: A new technology, including airway pH and exhaled breath condensate pepsin levels provide supporting evidence for the hypothesis that chronic cough is really a single diagnosis which has been termed the cough hypersensitivity syndrome.

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2009: Detection of pepsin in sputum and exhaled breath condensate: could it be a useful marker for reflux-related respiratory disease?

Author(s): Strugala,  Faruqi, Dettmar, Morice

Overview: We present data utilising sputum/saliva or exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of patients with chronic cough with and without recent symptoms.

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